Commissioning services represent a very small portion of a project’s total cost – between 0.6 and 1.8% of the construction budget. Commissioning fees vary and are determined primarily by the scope of services and phases of involvement [design and construction, construction only, or design through post-construction support]. The quantity and types of systems to be commissioned can also impact the cost and can include HVAC, electrical, lighting, renewable energy, building controls and automation systems, as well as fire/life safety systems and building envelope. When framing the costs of commissioning it is important to weigh the long term performance benefits, with energy savings lasting up to 4.5 years, as well as increased system reliability and extended equipment lifespan.